Tripartite inter-ministerial coordination mechanisms ensure coordinated support towards comprehensible interventions aligned with national development frameworks and key stakeholders’ concerns and priorities. The focus of this section is primarily on the income aspect of inequality; other dimensions of inequality are discussed in the section on gender equality and non-discrimination, though they are very relevant to income inequality; in particular, there is a clear link between unequal pay between women and men and income inequality. Yet this dialogue also faced many … This is the main purpose of the Organization today. National social protection floors should comprise at least the following four social security guarantees, as defined at the national level: Such guarantees should be provided to all residents and all children, as defined in national laws and regulations, and subject to existing international obligations. Within the 2030 Agenda, Goal 8 calls for ‘sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all’. This course will contribute to an in-depth understanding of the relationship between the Decent Work Agenda and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Social protection both reduces poverty, and prevents people from falling into poverty. Strengthening the organization and representation of rural stakeholders – for example, through cooperatives and other social and social solidarity economy organizations – as well as improving the institutional framework for social dialogue is key for promoting decent work in the rural economy. Freedom of association is a fundamental human right proclaimed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). Addressing OSH gaps can turn the vicious circle described above into a virtuous circle of healthier lives and increased productivity which maximizes decent work and sustainable development outcomes. Businesses create jobs from the local to international levels, and those operating across borders can affect international wages and working conditions. Social dialogue needs democratic participation of partners who have the capacity to engage in the process effectively and responsibly, as well as the strength and flexibility to adjust to contemporary circumstances and exploit new opportunities. The ILO Governing Body has reviewed all ILO standards adopted before 1985 and determined that some 71 conventions, including the fundamental conventions and those adopted after 1985 remain fully up-to-date and should be actively promoted, and that the remainder require revision or withdrawal. "There is also a growing interest on the part of the EU and international civil society in decent work, as illustrated for instance by: the launch of the Decent Work/Decent Life [Campaign]…".[16]. We view the decent work agenda as one of the most exciting and economically empowering policy challenges for the development community. an enabling legal and institutional framework. Decent Work: The ILO Agenda 39 In keeping with its charter, the International Labour Organization (ILO) has the mission of improving the work and living conditions of individuals. An important starting point to overcome discrimination is the right to equality of opportunity and treatment in respect of employment and occupation. There is a mixture of on-and off-farm activities ranging from smallholder agriculture or pastoralism to highly sophisticated commercial agribusiness supplying global markets through intense regional and national linkages with industrial and services sectors. These include: Sound industrial relations including consultation and cooperation, collective bargaining and minimum wage setting through tripartite social dialogue are means to promote better wages and working conditions, as well as peace and social justice. NEPs therefore contribute to policy coherence (SDG target 17.14) and national ownership (17.15). THE 2030 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AGENDA AND DECENT WORK AGENDA. Work related to child labour also supports SDG target 16.2: “end abuse, exploitations, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children”, and contributes to the implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, which came into force in 1990. The Decent Jobs for Youth knowledge facility is a digital platform of tools, publications, databases, thematic resources and more to support evidence-informed action on youth employment. Employment is the primary means of income generation for the poor. The age pyramid will in a growing number of countries turn upside down, thus creating new demand for goods and services designed specifically for the elderly. In November 2007, decision makers from European governments and institutions signed the Call to Action of the Decent Work, Decent Life Campaign[15] adding up to the recognition of the Decent Work Agenda. However, experience has shown that in the longer term and at the aggregate level, productivity growth may not necessarily reduce employment growth in a country. The only tripartite U.N. agency, since 1919 the ILO brings together governments, employers and workers of 187 member States, to set labour standards, develop policies and devise programmes promoting decent work for all women and men. The tripartite nature of the discussions leading to Conventions and Recommendations provides a sound basis for the provision of advice or the promotion of policies in support of the international agenda, including the 2030 Agenda. The concept of forced labour covers a wide range of coercive labour practices, which occur in all types of economic activity and in all parts of the world. Moreover, since employment creation can be considered as the mechanism that translates growth into poverty reduction, NEPs are of great relevance to the fight against poverty (SDG 1) and inequality (SDG 10) but they can only be effective if they respond to local needs. Our work is clustered around eight thematic priorities that present immediate and long-term opportunities to tackle the global youth employment challenge. [14] However, an obstacle is that it is difficult to convince the citizens of a country that aiding development and job creation abroad is also beneficial domestically. The 2030 Agenda’s pledge to involve non-state actors in the national development process can be seen as an opportunity to rejuvenate tripartite social dialogue. Several SDG targets touch upon aspects of global trade, including 8.a (Aid for Trade support to developing countries), 9.3 (integration of SMEs into global value chains), 16.3 (rule of law at the international level) and 17.11 (boosting exports by developing countries). Decent work, gender equality and non-discrimination feature prominently in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Standards are adopted by a two-thirds majority vote of the ILO’s constituents and are therefore an expression of universally acknowledged principles. In destination countries, labour migration can rejuvenate the workforce, allow labour-intensive sectors such as agriculture, construction and personal services to function, promote entrepreneurship, support social protection schemes, and help meet the demand for skills. However, the pattern or nature of growth matters, too. [12] But there do exist debates on whether reducing the size of the informal economy would bring about social welfare. This is antithetical to the Decent Work Agenda, although it does contribute to economic development. Children’s or adolescents’ participation in work that does not affect their health and personal development or interfere with their schooling, can be regarded as something positive. It may involve the social partners in different economic sectors, within a single sector or in a single company or group of companies. DECENT WORK & OLDER WORKERS. The ILO’s unique supervisory bodies engage governments in dialogue on the application of standards and serve as useful sources of information on law and practice in particular countries. It is now commonly acknowledged that economic growth, while necessary, is by no means sufficient to engender sustainable and productive employment. These resources can be accessed in two windows below: through the 2030 Agenda’s SDGs or through the DWA Outcomes. The portfolio of commitments reflects partners’ actions targeting over 18 million young women and men across the globe. [1], Decent work is applied to both the formal and informal sector. Low productivity is one of the root causes of the “working poor” phenomenon: people who work long hours, often in the informal economy or in subsistence agriculture, but still do not earn enough to feed their families. The objective of these negotiations is to arrive at a collective agreement that regulates terms and conditions of employment. Decent work is the availability of employment for both men and women in conditions of freedom, equality, security and human rights”. The Decent Work Agenda was developed in 1999 by the ILO around four pillars: employment creation, rights at work, social protection and social dialogue (Andrieu et al., 2008).1 It has achieved high-level international endorsement, first in 2008, when it was included in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) under MDG 1, and later as part of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable … Launched in 1999, years before the recession, 2. the ILO‟s decent work agenda seeks for workers not only “the creation of jobs of In its most extreme forms, child labour involves children being enslaved, separated from their families, exposed to serious hazards and illnesses and/or left to fend for themselves on the streets of large cities – often at a very early age. It can also contribute to facilitating the transition from the informal to the formal economy. They will also play a key role in supporting target 8.b, which calls for a global strategy on youth employment and 9.a, 9.b and 9.3 which aim to facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries, support domestic technology through employment-intensive public works interventions and promote access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises to financial services and their integration into value chains and markets. In numerous countries, domestic workers are trapped in situations of forced labour, and in many cases they are restrained from leaving the employers’ home through threats or violence. The intervention models are being adapted to the type of enterprise in view: SMEs, multinationals or cooperatives. Social dialogue is defined by the ILO to include all types of negotiation, consultation or simply exchange of information between, or among, representatives of government, worker and employers, on issues of common interest relating to economic and social policy. Bringing equality to the workplace has significant economic benefits too. SDG target 8.8 calls for the protection “of labour rights of all workers”; target 16.3 seeks to promote the rule of law both nationally and internationally, target 16.6 demands the development of “effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels (which are essential for the protection of the freedom of association and the right to collective bargaining), and target 16.10 enjoins the protection of fundamental freedoms. The victims are the most vulnerable – women and girls forced into prostitution, migrants trapped in debt bondage, and sweatshop or farm workers kept there by clearly illegal tactics and paid little or nothing. Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: “everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security”. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), decent work involves opportunities for work that are productive and deliver a fair income, security in the workplace and social protection for families, better prospects for personal development and social integration, freedom for people to express their concerns, organize and participate in the decisions that affect their lives and equality of opportunity and treatment for all women and men. [14] To remain competitive in the world economy, governments are tempted to close markets and lower labor standards which is believed to cause depressing wages and working conditions.[14]. We will cooperate internationally to ensure safe, orderly and regular migration involving full respect for human rights and the humane treatment of migrants regardless of migration status, of refugees and of displaced persons.”. Social dialogue may be informal or institutionalized, and often involves both. National employment policies (NEP) pursue the overarching objective of converting economic growth into employment growth. The decline in the employment content of growth is a matter of policy concern. International organizations can help to promote health and safety at work – and the most effective measures tend to be those that actively involve workers’ and employers’ organizations. Freedom of association is a democratic human right under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and therefore central to the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda which seeks to “realize the human rights of all”. From a Decent Work perspective the most relevant targets under this goal are 10.1 (income equality), 10.3 (equal opportunity) and 10.4 (fiscal, wage and social protection policies for equality). The ILO's Decent Work Agenda outlines four directions (creating jobs, guaranteeing rights at work, extending social protection, promoting social dialogue) (ILO, 2015). In some countries, the quality of social dialogue suffers from the limited capacity of workers’ and employers’ organizations, preventing them from effectively participating in governance processes and providing efficient services to members. Youths are singled out as a specific target group in many sections of the text, and appears as such in several SDG goals and targets. The enterprises and organizations belonging to the “social and solidarity economy” (SSE) contribute to all four pillars of the DWA by creating and sustaining jobs and livelihoods, extending social protection, strengthening and extending social dialogue to all workers, and promoting the application and enforcement of standards for all. Governments, workers' and employers' organizations around the world are working to improve the employability of workers, move young people into productive employment and decent work, and increase the productivity of enterprises through better quality and relevant training. Among those exploited by private individuals or enterprises, 4.5 million are victims of forced sexual exploitation and 14.2 million of forced labour exploitation. 130), Tripartite Consultation (Activities of the ILO) Recommendation, 1976 (No.152), Collective Bargaining Recommendation, 1981 (No. The term “child labour” in the narrower sense is defined as work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development. Inequality has not only material, but also many non-material dimensions, such as unequal power and voice, unequal access to rights, social protection, social capital etc. Of particular importance from a decent work perspective are SDG targets 4.4 (skills for youth employment), 8.5 (full employment), 8.6 (reduction in youth unemployment), and 8.b (a global strategy for youth employment). Millions of women and men around the world are denied access to jobs and training, confined to certain occupations or offered lower pay simply because of their disability, ethnicity, indigenous or tribal status, race, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, political or other opinion, real or perceived HIV/AIDS-status or other status. Decent work is employment that "respects the fundamental rights of the human person as well as the rights of workers in terms of conditions of work safety and remuneration. Trafficking in persons has been the subject of growing international attention in recent years. In Africa, for example, informal employment is the norm, while well-paying jobs that offer social-protection benefits are the exception. In developed economies where inequality increased most, this was frequently due to a combination of more wage inequality and job losses. Skills development is also crucial for the achievement of SDG 5 (gender equality), as well as SDG target 4.5 (gender disparities in education). A broad range of terms exist to describe them, including global production networks and global value chains. A review of economic development from an employment perspective should therefore assess to what extent economic growth has met the need for more jobs and for higher productivity/incomes. Hence, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Decent Work Agenda (DWA) are intimately related and mutually reinforcing. Typical issues on the bargaining agenda include wages, working time, training, occupational health and safety and equal treatment. The secretariat facilitates coordination and cooperation with partners working in similar areas and offer guidance and support implementation of the commitment. However, the case for active labour market policies has also been linked to potential social benefits in the form of the inclusion and participation that comes from productive employment. Working poverty remains pervasive, and non-standard, precarious forms of employment have seen an alarming rise. Access to social protection is extremely limited. And the key to the success of promoting equality in the labour market is the active involvement of workers' organizations, employers’ organizations and other stakeholders. An additional 160 million workers suffer from non-fatal work-related diseases and 313 million from non-fatal injuries per year. As such, the ILO is the leading global expert on the concept of full employment and decent work, which has since been adopted into the work of many UN agencies, programs and funds (UNDP, 2015; United Nations General Assembly [UNGA], 2005b). Environmental sustainability constitutes one of the three dimensions of sustainable development, and several SDGs are considered primarily “environmental”: SDG 11 (human settlements), SDG 12 (sustainable production and consumption), SDG 13 (climate change), SDG 14 (oceans) and SDG 15 (ecosystems). At the same time, a lack of productive employment opportunities and the persistence of decent work deficits will impede pro-poor growth and sustainable development. On the other hand, the youth labour market has its own particularities. 94), Consultation (Industrial and National Levels) Recommendation, 1960 (No. Recent ILO statistics on child labour reveal that: Child labour is a violation of fundamental human rights and has been shown to hinder children’s development. Education, as well as being an end in itself, is also a means to getting a decent job, especially for young people, while lifelong learning is indispensable in order to keep up with the changing skills needed for the labour market. Underemployment is widespread and incomes are generally low. Hence, the rate of economic growth sets the absolute ceiling within which growth in employment and growth in labour productivity can take place. This document surveys some existing challenges to sustainable development, how these affect the world of work and the ... Sustainability in the 2030 Agenda is a forward-looking concept that calls for action based on the SDG target 8.b calls for the implementation of the ILO Global Jobs Pact (2009) whose fundamental objective is to provide an internationally agreed basis for policy-making designed to reduce the time lag between economic recovery and a recovery with decent work opportunities. The discrimination that certain groups, such as women, ethnic or racial minorities and migrants, face in the labour market makes them highly vulnerable to exploitation and abuses such as forced labour. We highly encourage commitments based on partnerships of two or more entities. Unless productive employment is at the heart of macroeconomic and social policies and the aggregate demand for labour is expanding, it is not possible to have successful programmes to integrate disadvantaged young people into the labour market. Enterprises are central to the Decent Work Agenda (DWA) and sustainable development: enterprises create jobs, observe and implement labour standards, contribute to social protection through taxes and own contributions, and constitute the place where workers and employers interact on a daily basis. The latter depends on a range of factors, such as the sector composition of growth and the capital/labour intensity of growth within the individual sectors. It is, therefore, critical that the national development framework adopt a comprehensive, rights-based approach to the issues of young people, especially related to productive and decent employment. There are 13 million (8.8 per cent) of children in child labour in Latin America and the Caribbean; and in the Middle East and North Africa there are 9.2 million (8.4 per cent). The concept of a social protection floor was initially developed by the ILO; thereafter, recognizing the importance and necessity of adequate social protection systems, the UN Chief Executives Board (CEB) adopted in April 2009 "the Social Protection Floor Initiative" as one of its nine key priorities to cope with the 2008–2009 global financial crisis. Explicitly integrating employment and decent work into economic growth and poverty reduction policies helps to maximize the benefits for people and to ensure that growth is both sustainable and inclusive. The Global Initiative on Decent Jobs for Youth is the first-ever, comprehensive UN system-wide effort for the promotion of youth employment worldwide. Inequality weakens the link between economic growth and employment creation in general and between economic growth and both the reduction of poverty and working poverty, as well as other dimensions of decent work deficits. The objective of these measures is primarily economic – to increase the probability that the unemployed will find jobs or that the underemployed will increase their productivity and earnings. The 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda unambiguously states that “We will devote resources to developing rural areas and sustainable agriculture and fisheries, supporting smallholder farmers, especially women farmers, herders and fishers in developing countries, particularly least developed countries.” SDG 2 (end hunger) is the primary SDG associated with the rural economy, but many others, such as those dealing with water, energy, infrastructure, equality and the environment are of greatest importance to rural populations as well. Women also continue to be overrepresented in unpaid and care work, often working longer hours than men when both paid work and unpaid work are taken into account. It is possible to enhance the contribution of global supply chains to fair and inclusive growth if there is stronger coherence between economic objectives and decent work. Social dialogue can only function effectively if certain preconditions are in place. It can occur where work is forced upon people by State authorities, by private enterprises or by individuals. Moreover, access to an adequate level of social protection is a basic right of all individuals. The promotion of social justice as the principal strategy to achieve greater equality is highlighted in the very first sentence of the ILO Constitution: “Whereas universal and lasting peace can be established only if it is based upon social justice…”; it was reaffirmed by the Declaration of Philadelphia (1944), which states that “all human beings, irrespective of race, creed or sex, have the right to pursue their material wellbeing and their spiritual development in conditions of freedom and dignity, of economic security and equal opportunity". Youth entrepreneurship and self-employment. All youth employment stakeholders are invited to register individual or joint commitments in pursuit of decent jobs for youth. Discrimination is a basis for social exclusion and poverty. At the same time, they reflect the fact that countries have diverse cultural and historical backgrounds, legal systems and levels of economic development. Progress towards the "SDGs for decent work for all" objective will require societies to move towards sustainable consumption and production patterns that safeguard the natural environment. The targets associated with SDG 8 cover a wide range of aspects linked to the Decent Work Agenda, such as productivity (8.2), entrepreneurship (8.3), green jobs (8.4), job creation (8.5), youth employment (8.6), child and forced labour (8.7), OSH (8.8), LED (8.9) and access to finance (8.10). At least half of the global workforce – the equivalent of 1.5 billion people – will be affected by the transition to a greener economy. employment intermediation services (job search assistance, information provision, counselling and matching); subsidized employment (public employment/works programmes, wage and hiring subsidies, job retention subsidies); and. 113), Communications within the Undertaking Recommendation, 1967 (No.129), Examination of Grievances Recommendation, 1967 (No. The elimination of child labour is explicitly referred to in SDG target 8.7 which commits the global community to “take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025 end child labour in all its forms”. ... Our article ultimately shows that while ideas … Changes in the distribution of wages and paid employment have been key factors behind recent inequality trends. The Agenda has been incorporated in the Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations. The Social Justice Declaration (2008), also underlined that the “four strategic objectives are inseparable, interrelated and mutually supportive”, and that gender equality and non-discrimination cut across all the strategic objectives; this was more recently related by the 2016 Resolution on Advancing Social Justice through Decent Work. Fair terms of employment, decent working conditions, safety and health at work and development for the benefit of all cannot be achieved without the active involvement of workers, employers and governments through social dialogue. If women in rural areas had the same access to agriculture assets, education and markets as men, agricultural production could be increased and the number of hungry people reduced by 100-150 million. The role and contribution of the private sector and business in achieving sustainable development is one of the major subjects of the Addis Ababa Action Agenda on financing for development; it is also at the core of SDG 17 (global partnership for sustainable development). Productive employment and decent work are key elements to achieving a fair globalization and poverty reduction. The right of workers and employers to form and join organizations of their own choosing is an integral part of a free and open society. Considering income distribution of all human beings, the worldwide income inequality has been constantly increasing since the early 19th century. Labour productivity measures the efficiency of a country with which inputs are used in an economy to produce goods and services and it offers a measure of economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within a country. In many cases, these organizations have played a significant role in their countries’ democratic transformation. Access to and extension of social protection is the subject of many ILO standards, whereas the implementation of social protection schemes and the management of social security institutions is often (and should always be) realized through a process of social dialogue. These guarantees should ensure at a minimum that, over the life cycle, all those in need have access to essential health care and basic income security. In fact, the simultaneous promotion of the four pillars of decent work agenda has the potential to significantly reduce inequality. Rural areas are characterized by governance gaps and informality. Active labour market policies may be classified in four categories: These may be directed at specific groups of labour market participants, such as the (long-term) unemployed and retrenched workers, the youth as well as other disadvantaged population groups, such as rural women, those in informal employment, and indigenous peoples (particularly women). The Campaign’s necessity stems from multiple forms of discrimination in both policy and practice on a daily basis women are facing such as the gender pay gap,[17] the lack of maternity protection and the higher unemployment rates among women. Trade negotiators can forward the Decent Work Agenda globally by including labor standards in trade agreements, while legislators (among others) can support their implementation. 91), Co-operation at the Level of the Undertaking Recommendation, 1952 (No. The rural/urban divide becomes even more apparent when considering poverty rates for people in employment. Institutions for social dialogue, which is based on the rights of freedom of association and collective bargaining, take into account each country’s cultural, historical, economic and political context. This will lead to an expansion of hitherto “atypical” employment relationships. However, rural areas are also characterized by great diversity and should not be considered as being exclusively agricultural. The 2030 Agenda does not refer to global supply chains directly, but points out in its paragraph 63 that “national development efforts need to be supported by an enabling international economic environment, including coherent and mutually supporting world trade, monetary and financial systems, and strengthened and enhanced global economic governance”. Unemployment to economic development strategies have been key factors behind recent inequality trends partners ’ work youth. 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